Genotoxicity of the some selective estrogen receptor modulators: a review

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YILMAZ S., Gonenc I. M., Yilmaz E.

CYTOTECHNOLOGY, vol.66, no.4, pp.533-541, 2014 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Review
  • Volume: 66 Issue: 4
  • Publication Date: 2014
  • Doi Number: 10.1007/s10616-014-9710-7
  • Journal Name: CYTOTECHNOLOGY
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus
  • Page Numbers: pp.533-541
  • Gazi University Affiliated: Yes


The objective of this article is to review genotoxicological profile of the major selective estrogen receptor modulators, including clomiphene, tamoxifen, toremifene, raloxifene. These drugs have been used for infertility treatment and breast cancer prevention in high risk-women. However, some studies reported that especially tamoxifen is a genotoxic agent and is related with endometrial cancer. Our review indicate that clomiphene and tamoxifen were found as genotoxic agent in majority of the tests. However published reports showed that toremifene is a weakly genotoxic agent. The genotoxic effects of raloxifene are still poorly known. Further genotoxicity studies should be conducted especially for raloxifene.