This study was carried out to test the effects of reciprocal teaching on reading comprehension skills, learning retention and self-efficacy perception of reading comprehension. Research was conducted in 4th grade Turkish lessons of a primary school located in the Central Anatolia region of Turkey with experimental and control groups of 25 randomly assigned students. Experimental method was used in the research and findings were supported with qualitative data. Data were collected through the Reading Comprehension Skills Achievement Test, Self-efficacy Perception Scale for Reading Comprehension and Student Interview Form, each developed by the researchers. According to the findings of the research, there was a significant difference between students in the experimental group where the reciprocal teaching technique was implemented and students in the control group where the traditional teaching process was continued in terms of the achievement level and retention scores of the reading comprehension in favor of the experimental group. However, no significant difference was found between the groups in terms of self-efficacy levels. The students in the experimental group expressed that they were pleased to have the opportunity to lead their friends, to have a say in guiding the lesson, this technique facilitated their understanding of the texts they read and it provided them with a group work environment.