The purpose of this study is to analyze the current situation in Turkish Primary Education and determine the possible future scenarios towards changes in age population, probable problem areas in the future, alternative policy suggestions, and process of improving the quality in education. Therefore, qualitative research method and phenomenology design were conducted in the study. Purposeful sampling method, maximum variation, and criterion sampling were applied to select the participants. A semi-structural interview form was developed by the researcher and used to gather data in the study. Data of the study were examined in the dimensions of population and quality. The findings of the study demonstrated that the key factor in determining the success in primary schools was the quality of teachers. As a result, it can easily be said that Turkey needs to develop a model for improving quality in primary schools based on its own characteristics and conditions.