Dual temperature- and pH-sensitive hydrogels composed of N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAM) and 2-acrylamido-2-methyl-propanosulfonic acid (AMPS) were prepared by free-radical crosslinking copolymerization in aqueous solution at 22 degrees C. The mole percent of AMPS in the comonomer feed was varied between 0.0 and 7.5, while the crosslinker ratio was fixed at 5.0/100. The effect of AMPS content on thermo- and pH-induced phase transitions as well as equilibrium swelling/deswelling, interior morphology and network structure was investigated. The volume phase transition temperature (VPT-T) was determined by both swelling/deswelling measurements and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) technique. In addition, the volume phase transition pH (VPT-pH) was detected from the derivative of the curves of the swelling ratio (dQ(v)/dpH) versus pH. The polymer-solvent interaction parameter (chi) and the average molecular mass between crosslinks ((M) over bar (c)) of hydrogels were calculated from swelling ratios in buffer solutions at various pHs. The enthalpy (Delta H) and entropy (Delta S) changes appearing in the chi parameter of hydrogels were also determined by using the modified Flory-Rehner equation. The negative values for Delta H and Delta S indicated that the hydrogels had a negative temperature-sensitive property in water, that is, swelling at a lower temperature and shrinking at a higher temperature. It was observed that the experimental swelling data of hydrogels at different temperature agreed with the modified Flory-Rehner approach based on the affine network model. (C) 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.