The purpose of this study is to identify the think aloud protocols utilized in the assessment of cognitive and metacognitive strategies that are used in the process of mathematical problem solving by the students with learning disabilities (LD). Regarding the purpose of the study, the strategies required in mathematical problem solving are firstly clarified, and students' mathematical problem solving difficulties are stated. Secondly, the use of think aloud protocols for the assessment of cognitive and metacognitive strategies in mathematical problem solving are identified, and the related research findings are discussed. Thirdly, the information about the educational implications of assessment results concerning the application of think aloud protocol is provided. In conclusion section, suggestions are made for addressing the needs of research focused on cognitive and metacognitive strategies used by students with learning disabilities and their peers.