The residential sector, which represents one-third of global energy consumption and 40 % of CO2 emissions, has recently gained more attention with the long-term ambitious climate targets. The right pathway can be tracked by unveiling energy efficiency potential in residential buildings. This study aims to understand the reasons be-hind the increase in Turkish residential energy consumption and conduct a quantitative analysis to calculate the contribution of energy efficiency improvements to reduce energy consumption in Turkey between 2000 and 2018 using the decomposition analysis methodology Logarithmic Mean Divisia Index-I. Results show that the increase in population and wealth leads to a rise in residential energy consumption by 4.95 mtoe and 9.01 mtoe, respectively. The milder climatic conditions have resulted in a 2.25 mtoe reduction in space heating energy consumption. Energy efficiency resulted in a saving of 9.16 mtoe energy during the analysis period. Improve-ments in space heating made the most significant contribution to energy savings. Because of the increased own-ership rates of dishwashers and washing machines, the only end-use-where energy intensity did not improve-is seen as domestic hot water. The analysis also revealed that the Energy Efficiency Law and its secondary legislation have significantly accelerated energy efficiency improvements. The methods employed in this study can simply be adapted to any country to enlighten the policymakers in choosing the best policy options.(c) 2022 International Energy Initiative. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.