Formalin (37-40% formaldehyde) is one of the most effective, widely used chemical in pisciculture for its antiparasitic, antifungal and prophylactic activities. It is used in paints, cleaning products and textile industry, as well. Genotoxic and histological effects of sublethal formalin exposure on Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) are investigated in this study. The semi-static acute test was employed. One-tenth, one-fifth and half of the 96-h LC50 value, 148mgL(-1), were used as sublethal exposure concentrations: 15, 30 and 75mgL(-1) for 24, 48, 96 and 168h respectively. The micronucleus test was applied to investigate the genotoxic effects on fish erythrocytes at the end of predetermined exposure periods and all tissues of the fish were sampled for histological examination. The micronucleus frequencies increased significantly in all exposure groups when compared with their control groups in a dose and time dependent manner (P<0.05). Results of histological examination showed no histopathological findings in the gonads, heart, skeletal muscle, spleen and intestine tissues after sublethal formalin exposure. Passive hyperaemia of liver tissue in varying proportions, hydropic degeneration, fatty degeneration in high concentrations, branchitis on gill tissues in varying proportions, epithelial lifting, telangiectasia, bleeding in kidney and hyperaemia were found in Nile tilapia exposed to formalin at different concentrations and durations. As a result, it is thought that formalin leads to tissue damage and shows genotoxic effects even at 15mgL(-1) concentration in O. niloticus.