Evaluation of glycyl-arginine and lysyl-aspartic acid dipeptides for their antimicrobial, antibiofilm, and anticancer potentials

Sevim Akan H., Şahal G., Karaca T. D., Gürpınar Ö. A., Maraş M., Doğan A.

Archives of Microbiology, vol.205, no.12, 2023 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Letter
  • Volume: 205 Issue: 12
  • Publication Date: 2023
  • Doi Number: 10.1007/s00203-023-03724-4
  • Journal Name: Archives of Microbiology
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, Aquatic Science & Fisheries Abstracts (ASFA), BIOSIS, CAB Abstracts, Chemical Abstracts Core, EMBASE, Environment Index, Food Science & Technology Abstracts, Veterinary Science Database
  • Keywords: Antibiofilm effect, Anticancer activity, Antimicrobials, Cytotoxicity, Glycyl-arginine, Lysyl-aspartic acid
  • Gazi University Affiliated: Yes


Antibacterial resistance and cancer are worldwide challenges and have been defined as major threats by international health organizations. Peptides are produced naturally by all organisms and have a variety of immunomodulatory, physiological, and wound-healing properties. They can also provide protection against microorganisms and tumor cells. Therefore, we aimed to determine the antimicrobial, antibiofilm, and anticancer potentials of Glycyl-Arginine and Lysyl-Aspartic acid dipeptides. The Broth Dilution and Crystal Violet Binding assays assessed the antimicrobial tests and biofilm inhibitory effects. The MTT assay was used to measure the cytotoxic effects of dipeptides on HeLa cell viability. According to our results, Candida tropicalis T26 and Proteus mirabilis U15 strains were determined as more resistant to Staphylococcus epidermidis W17 against Glycyl-Arginine and Lysyl-Aspartic acid dipeptides with MICs higher than 2 mM (1 mg/mL). Sub-MICs of Glycyl-Arginine caused inhibitions against biofilm formation of all the tested clinical isolates, with the highest inhibition observed against S. epidermidisW17. Lysyl-Aspartic acid exhibited zero to no effect against biofilm formation of P. mirabilisU15, and S. epidermidisW17, whereas it exhibited 52% inhibition of biofilm formation of C. tropicalisT26. Cell viability results revealed that HeLa cell viability decreases with increasing concentration of both dipeptides. Also, parallel to antimicrobial tests, Glycyl-Arginine has a greater cytotoxic effect compared to Lysyl-Aspartic acid. The findings from this study will contribute to the advancement of novel strategies involving dipeptide-based synthesizable molecules and drug development studies. However, it is essential to note that there are still challenges, including the need for extensive experimental and clinical trials.