Clonal diversity of subgingival yeast strains was determined in relation to geographical location and coexistence of selected periodontal pathogenic bacteria. A total of 60 dental patients from Finland, the United States and Turkey each contributed five Candida albicans isolates. C. albicans isolates were serotyped using slide agglutination and genotyped using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification and a random sequence primer. In general, each study subject yielded C. albicans isolates belonging to the same serotype and genotype. C. albicans serotype A occurred more frequently in subjects from Finland and Turkey than in subjects from the United States. A total of 27 PCR-based C. albicans genotypes were identified. One C. albicans genotype occurred with particularly high frequency in subjects from Turkey and another genotype in subjects from the United States. Relationships were identified between C. albicans serotypes and genotypes. Further studies are needed to determine environmental factors of importance for subgingival colonization and persistence of C. albicans.