Bronchiectasis is still common among some developing countries like Turkey. The aim of this study was to document the number of children with non-cystic fibrosis (CF) bronchiectasis, to evaluate the risk factors and to emphasize early diagnosis and treatment. All children, except those diagnosed with CF, with bronchiectasis established by chest radiogram, bronchography and/or computed tomography or biopsy material, were retrospectively reviewed. They were tested for serum total eosinophil count, nasal smear, serum levels of immunoglobulins A, G, M, E, and serum alpha-1 antitrypsin level. Pulmonary function tests, rigid bronchoscopy, nasal biopsy, lung scintigraphy, and echocardiogram were also performed. There were 204 patients whose most common presenting symptoms were cough, sputum expectoration, and dyspnea. Bronchiectasis was present mostly in the left lower lobe. The cause could not be determined in 49 per cent of patients. Among the identified causes, infection was present in most patients, followed by asthma, primary ciliary dyskinesia, congenital immune deficiency, and foreign body aspiration. It is possible to prevent bronchiectasis in children with vaccinations and improved nutrition in developing countries. Early diagnosis and treatment will increase the quality of life and survival of patients with bronchiectasis, which has irreversible and progressive complications if untreated.