Expected or unexpected clinical findings in liver glycogen storage disease type IX: distinct clinical and molecular variability

İnci A., Kılıç Yıldırım G., Cengiz Ergin F. B., Sarı S., Eğritaş Gürkan Ö., Okur İ., ...More

JOURNAL OF PEDIATRIC ENDOCRINOLOGY & METABOLISM, vol.35, no.4, pp.451-462, 2022 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 35 Issue: 4
  • Publication Date: 2022
  • Doi Number: 10.1515/jpem-2021-0278
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, BIOSIS, CAB Abstracts, EMBASE, MEDLINE
  • Page Numbers: pp.451-462
  • Keywords: hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, hypotonia, liver glycogen storage disease type IX, osteopenia, PHOSPHORYLASE-KINASE-DEFICIENCY, NATURAL-HISTORY, MUTATIONS, PHKA2, PHENOTYPE, ASSOCIATION, CIRRHOSIS, VARIANTS, GENOMICS, SPECTRUM
  • Gazi University Affiliated: Yes


Objectives To reveal the different clinical presentations of liver glycogen storage disease type IX (GSD IX), which is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous type of glycogenosis. Methods The data from the electronic hospital records of 25 patients diagnosed with liver GSD IX was reviewed. Symptoms, clinical findings, and laboratory and molecular analysis were assessed. Results Of the patients, 10 had complaints of short stature in the initial presentation additionally other clinical findings. Elevated serum transaminases were found in 20 patients, and hepatomegaly was found in 22 patients. Interestingly, three patients were referred due to neurodevelopmental delay and hypotonia, while one was referred for only autism. One patient who presented with neurodevelopmental delay developed hepatomegaly and elevated transaminases during the disease later on. Three of the patients had low hemoglobin A1C and fructosamine values that were near the lowest reference range. Two patients had left ventricular hypertrophy. Three patients developed osteopenia during follow-up, and one patient had osteoporosis after puberty. The most common gene variant, PHKA2, was observed in 16 patients, 10 variants were novel and six variants were defined before. Six patients had variants in PHKG2, two variants were not defined before and four variants were defined before. PHKB variants were found in three patients. One patient had two novel splice site mutations in trans position. It was revealed that one novel homozygous variant and one defined homozygous variant were found in PHKB. Conclusions This study revealed that GSD IX may present with only hypotonia and neurodevelopmental delay without liver involvement in the early infantile period. It should be emphasized that although liver GSDIX is thought of as a benign disease, it might present with multisystemic involvement and patients should be screened with echocardiography, bone mineral densitometry, and psychometric evaluation.