The close association between celiac disease (CD) and autoimmune disorders is well documented in adult and pediatric patients. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of CD in Turkish children with autoimmune thyroiditis (AT). Sera from 101 children with AT (11 boys and 90 girls, from 2 to 18 years of age; mean age 12.28 +/- A 3.26 years) and 103 healthy children (46 boys and 57 girls, from 3.5 to 17 years of age; mean age 12.18 +/- A 3.11 years) were screened for CD using the IgA anti-tissue transglutaminase (IgA anti-tTG) antibody and total serum IgA. Small intestinal biopsy was offered to all antibody-positive patients. IgA anti-tTG was positive in eight children (7.9%) with AT. None of the serum samples of healthy children were positive for IgA anti-tTG antibody. Selective IgA deficiency was not detected in patients or controls. Intestinal biopsy was accepted by seven patients. In five patients (4.9%), subtotal villous atrophy was found. These findings indicate that the prevalence of CD is higher in Turkish children with AT than in healthy controls. Routine screening for CD should be performed in children with AT.