Epilepsy is one of the most common serious chronic brain disorders of childhood and carries a strong social stigma. It has been generally accepted that educational programs can be beneficial in reducing the stigma of a number of chronic diseases such as epilepsy. In this article, we describe the first Turkish survey of primary school students' knowledge of and attitudes toward epilepsy and the effect of an epilepsy education program on the understanding of epilepsy in schoolchildren attending three different upper-middle schools in the city of Ankara. The epilepsy education program was found to be associated with a significant increase in knowledge of and positive attitudes toward epilepsy. In addition, students at higher socioeconomic levels performed better on both pre- and posttests. This emphasizes the importance of an educational program and the need for continued information and support for education about epilepsy. (C) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.