The aim of this study is to compare the bone healing in the distraction gap following the osteotomy performed with piezoelectric and conventional devices for the distraction osteogenesis in the rabbit mandibles. Twelve rabbits were randomly divided into 2 groups; 6 for piezoelectric device and 6 for rotary instruments. After 3 days of latency period, distraction was started at a rate of 1 mm per day for 10 days. All the animals were sacrificed after 4 weeks of consolidation phase for histological and histomorphological evaluation. Histological evaluation revealed thick trabecular bone formation in all of the specimens. Inflammation scores were chronic minimal. The mean percentages of the bone area in distraction gap are 62% in group P and 57% in group R. However, the difference between 2 groups was not statistically significant (P > 0.05). Our results revealed a slight increase in bone formation in the distraction gap in piezo-osteotomy groups histologically though not statistically supported. However, there is still a need for more histological studies with larger sample sizes evaluating the bone structure following piezo-osteotomies.