First-year architecture students are expected to utilise visuospatial abilities to generate/construct, retain, rotate and manipulate space mentally and physically through physical and digital representations. This study of 57 female and 23 male participants was conducted to investigate first-year architecture students' visuospatial abilities by means of the Beck Depression Inventory, Logical Reasoning Test and Judgment of Line Orientation (JLO) test. Participants' sexes, cognitive development level, depression scale scores, university entrance exam results, vision disorders, physical competences, art training prior to university and error types were the study's main parameters. The results showed that academic scores of the participants both to enrol in the program and complete the first-year studio did not correlate with their JLO scores. Nondepressed participants performed better in JLO. Error analyses demonstrated that there is a concentration on certain items according to the test stimulus line positions, especially in females. Those who reported limited physical and visual competency made more mistakes in the same items. The study concludes that sex, depression, and individual differences in physical and visual competency, and art training, are significant variables for visuospatial performance. Judging visuospatial parameters through spatial design exercises is different from having proper methods and instruments to assess the achievements of the students regarding those abilities in architectural design education. It is important to map students' visuospatial abilities individually from a developmental perspective. There is a strong need to develop 4D psychometric instrument to assess visuospatial abilities.