Cyclooxygenase (COX), which have the isoforms of COX-1 and COX-2, is the key enzyme of prostaglandins biosynthesis. Especially, COX-2 is induced in inflammatory disease such as Diabetes Mellitus (DM). Resveratrol (RSV), a natural antioxidant, has a beneficial role in prevention of inflammatory disease. We investigated the changes of COX-1 and COX-2 mRNA expression and protein level in diabetic rat kidney after RSV treatment. Three months-old, 44 Wistar albino male rats, which were divided into six groups such as control group, sodium citrate buffer (sham control) group, diabetic group (DM), Dimethyl Sulfoxide induced control group, RSV treated sham control group (RSV) and RSV treated diabetic group (DM + RSV) were used for the study. Experimental diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal injection of 55 mg/kg Streptozotocin. After the induction of chronic diabetes 10 mg/kg per day RSV was administered intraperitoneally for 4 weeks. In this study. RSV has no significant effect on COX-1 mRNA expression in diabetic rat kidney (P > 0.05). Immunohistochemical study showed that COX-1 expression was slightly inhibited in RSV group and was not significantly supressed in DM + RSV group. When comparing control and treated groups, there were no significant differences in COX-2 mRNA or protein levels (P > 0.05). In conclusion, our results indicate that resveratrol do not significantly affect COX gene and protein expression. Therefore, different therapy strategies such as combination with other antidiabetic drugs may tried in STZ induced animal model for reducing diabetic symptoms and altering COX-1 and COX-2 mRNA or protein levels.