Aggression and Fouls in Professional Football


Gümüşdağ H., Yıldıran İ. , Yamaner F., Kartal A.

Biomedical Human Kinetics, no.3, pp.67-71, 2011 (Refereed Journals of Other Institutions)

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Publication Date: 2011
  • Doi Number: 10.2478/v10101-011-0015-4
  • Title of Journal : Biomedical Human Kinetics
  • Page Numbers: pp.67-71

Abstract

Study aim: To assess the frequency, timing, zone and player category of fouls and of aggressive behaviour in profes-sional football. Material and methods: Video recordings of 17 matches played by one team out of 18 of the Turkish Football SuperLeague with all other teams were analysed with the use of observational foul analysis form. The following criteriawere considered: time, score of the match, zone, players’ position and foul category. The fouls were analysed in 6 periods of a match, 15 min each. Foul location in the football field was analysed in four zones according to player’s positions: Defence, Defence mid-zone, Offensive mid-zone and Attack.  Results:  Eleven  out  of  17  analyzed  matches  11  were  won,  3  were  lost  and  3  were  even.  A  total  of  652  fouls  wererecorded, mean numbers of fouls per match amounting to 24.2, 87.0 and 41.7 in won, lost and even matches, respec-tively.  Most  of  the  fouls  (50.8%)  were  committed  by  middle  zone  players  mostly  in  the  defensive  and  offensive  middle zones (33.9%). Only 1.2% of all fouls were unintentional, 11% were intentional, hostile, the other ones wereintentional, instrumental. Conclusions: The fouls could be attributed to the social learning theory that values the environmental factor in the cognitive  process  of  aggression.  The  presented  results  may  be  of  help  to  football  coaches  and  sport  psychologiststeaching  players  how  to  control  aggression  and  how  to  play  the  game  wit  minimum  harm  while  increasing  theirperformanceand methods: Video recordings of 17 matches played by one team out of 18 of the Turkish Football SuperLeague with all other teams were analysed with the use of observational foul analysis form. The following criteriawere considered: time, score of the match, zone, players’ position and foul category. The fouls were analysed in 6 periods of a match, 15 min each. Foul location in the football field was analysed in four zones according to player’s positions: Defence, Defence mid-zone, Offensive mid-zone and Attack.  Results:  Eleven  out  of  17  analyzed  matches  11  were  won,  3  were  lost  and  3  were  even.  A  total  of  652  fouls  wererecorded, mean numbers of fouls per match amounting to 24.2, 87.0 and 41.7 in won, lost and even matches, respec-tively.  Most  of  the  fouls  (50.8%)  were  committed  by  middle  zone  players  mostly  in  the  defensive  and  offensive  middle zones (33.9%). Only 1.2% of all fouls were unintentional, 11% were intentional, hostile, the other ones wereintentional, instrumental. Conclusions: The fouls could be attributed to the social learning theory that values the environmental factor in the cognitive  process  of  aggression.  The  presented  results  may  be  of  help  to  football  coaches  and  sport  psychologiststeaching  players  how  to  control  aggression  and  how  to  play  the  game  wit  minimum  harm  while  increasing  theirperformance to player’s