The karyotypes of 73 specimens of subterranean mole rats of the superspecies Spalax leucodon Nordmann, 1840 from 21 localities, and six specimens of the superspecies Spalax ehrenbergi Nehring, 1898 from three localities in Turkey were analysed. S. leucodon has 2n = 56, NF = 78 in the populations from Thrace; and 2n = 48, NF = 71; 2n = 50, NF = 70; 2n = 50, NF 72; 2n = 54, NF = 75; 2n = 56, NF = 72; 2n = 58, NF = 72; 2n = 60, NF = 74; 2n = 60, NF = 76; 2n = 60, NF = 77 in the populations from Anatolia. S. ehrenbergi has 2n = 56, NF = 72 in the Adana population, and 2n = 52, NF = 74 in the Elbeyli population. According to these karyological findings based on chromosome morphology, the diploid chromosome number of 2n = 48, NF = 71 reported here is new for Spalax leucodon in Turkey. The karyological peculiarities and distributional area of mole rats in the European part of Turkey have been determined in detail, and shown that only the 2n = 56 form is distributed in Thrace.