The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of oral Candida spp. in HD patients and to investigate its relation with systemic inflammation and atherosclerosis. Microbiological samples were taken from buccal mucosa, palate, and dental prosthesis with a cotton swab. High-sensitivity CRP (hsCRP) and IL-6 were measured as inflammation markers. A total of 69 patients (58% male and median age 62 years) were enrolled in this study; 53.6% of total patients had oral Candida colonization. HsCRP and IL-6 levels were found to be significantly higher in the oral Candida colonization positive group than in the Candida colonization negative group (P = 0.002 and P = 0.01, respectively). HDL levels were significantly lower in the Candida colonization positive group (P = 0.03). Peripheral artery disease (P = 0.05) and oral Candida colonization (P = 0.002) were significantly associated with inflammation. In addition to conventional risk factors such as age (P = 0.03), diabetes (P = 0.001), and peripheral artery disease (P = 0.002), oral Candida colonization is associated with coronary artery disease (P = 0.04). Oral Candida colonization might be associated with chronic inflammation and development of atherosclerosis in HD patients.