Several recent studies have revealed a wide role for nitric oxide (NO) in bone metabolism. Low doses of NO cause bone resorption, but higher doses of NO inhibit bone resorbing activity. Cytokines are potent stimulators of NO production. NO is a very short-lived molecules. It exists for only 6-10 s only before it is converted by oxygen and water into the end-products nitrates and nitrites. Osteoporosis is a metabolic bone disease, characterized by a decreased amount of bone and increased susceptibility to fracture. NO may be involved as a mediator of bone disease such as post-menopausal osteoporosis. Calcitonin is a peptide hormone that inhibits bone resorption. The function of calcitonin in some cells is often unclear. In this study 30 post-menopausal osteoporotic women of ages ranging between 55 and 59 years without systemic diseases and free of any drug therapy were included. Twenty of them, randomly chosen, were treated with calcium (500 mg day(-1)) + calcitonin (nasal spray 100 U day(-1)) and the other 10 women (control group) were treated with calcium only. This treatment was applied for 6 months and NO values were measured in each of the two groups before and after treatment. Our findings demonstrate that NO regulates osteoclastic bone resorption activity in association with calcitonin. Copyright (C) 2001 John Wiley Sons, Ltd.