© 2022 Elsevier LtdThe pipelines should be inspected periodically to minimize the probability of failure. The timing of these periodic inspections can be determined by a risk assessment that considers the probability of failure of the pipeline and the potential undesirable effects of the chemical transferred. These are referred to as risk-based inspection methods in the literature. We evaluate pipelines with internal surface defects and under the effect of variable pressure in this study. Internal surface defects were considered production-related, and there is a lack of studies in the literature examining such kinds of defects. These defects generate the concentration of stress on the pipeline section. The reliability variation of the pipeline depends on some factors, namely, surface defect geometry, the pipe section geometry, and the mechanical properties of the pipe. Fatigue is accepted as the crucial damage mechanism. The cause of variable load is considered as the number of operations. As a result of the study, the probability of fatigue failure for pipelines with internal surface defects was evaluated. Then, a new approach was proposed for risk-based inspection planning of the pipelines. As a case study, the probability of fatigue failure on a fuel pipeline established between a refinery and an oil terminal operating in Turkey was calculated. Also, we tried to determine the most appropriate inspection time. The data used in the planning phase was collected from a measurement process performed on the pipeline using PIG (Pipe Inspection Gauge). Finite element analysis was used to calculate stress concentration factors. Finally, we used the Monte Carlo simulation method to obtain the probability of failure.