Glycogen storage diseases (GSDs) are known as complex disorders with overlapping manifestations. These features also preclude a specific clinical diagnosis, requiring more accurate paraclinical tests. To evaluate the patients with particular diagnosis features characterizing GSD, an observational retrospective case study was designed by performing a targeted gene sequencing (TGS) for accurate subtyping. A total of the 15 pediatric patients were admitted to our hospital and referred for molecular genetic testing using TGS. Eight genes namely SLC37A4, AGL, GBE1, PYGL, PHKB, PGAM2, and PRKAG2 were detected to be responsible for the onset of the clinical symptoms. A total number of 15 variants were identified i.e. mostly loss-of-function (LoF) variants, of which 10 variants were novel. Finally, diagnosis of GSD types Ib, III, IV, VI, IXb, IXc, X, and GSD of the heart, lethal congenital was made in 13 out of the 14 patients. Notably, GSD-IX and GSD of the heart-lethal congenital (i.e. PRKAG2 deficiency) patients have been reported in Iran for the first time which shown the development of liver cirrhosis with novel variants. These results showed that TGS, in combination with clinical, biochemical, and pathological hallmarks, could provide accurate and high-throughput results for diagnosing and sub-typing GSD and related diseases.