A Review of Imaging Biomarkers of the Ocular Surface

Binotti W. W. , Bayraktutar B., Ozmen M. C. , Cox S. M. , Hamrah P.

EYE & CONTACT LENS-SCIENCE AND CLINICAL PRACTICE, cilt.46, 2020 (SCI İndekslerine Giren Dergi) identifier identifier identifier

  • Yayın Türü: Makale / Derleme
  • Cilt numarası: 46
  • Basım Tarihi: 2020
  • Doi Numarası: 10.1097/icl.0000000000000684


A biomarker is a "characteristic that is measured as an indicator of normal biological processes, pathogenic processes, or responses to an exposure or intervention, including therapeutic interventions." Recently, calls for biomarkers for ocular surface diseases have increased, and advancements in imaging technologies have aided in allowing imaging biomarkers to serve as a potential solution for this need. This review focuses on the state of imaging biomarkers for ocular surface diseases, specifically non-invasive tear break-up time (NIBUT), tear meniscus measurement and corneal epithelial thickness with anterior segment optical coherence tomography (OCT), meibomian gland morphology with infrared meibography andin vivoconfocal microscopy (IVCM), ocular redness with grading scales, and cellular corneal immune cells and nerve assessment by IVCM. Extensive literature review was performed for analytical and clinical validation that currently exists for potential imaging biomarkers. Our summary suggests that the reported analytical and clinical validation state for potential imaging biomarkers is broad, with some having good to excellent intra- and intergrader agreement to date. Examples of these include NIBUT for dry eye disease, ocular redness grading scales, and detection of corneal immune cells by IVCM for grading and monitoring inflammation. Further examples are nerve assessment by IVCM for monitoring severity of diabetes mellitus and neurotrophic keratitis, and corneal epithelial thickness assessment with anterior segment OCT for the diagnosis of early keratoconus. However, additional analytical validation for these biomarkers is required before clinical application as a biomarker.