Objective: Pseudocholinesterase (PChE) is an enzyme responsible for the hydrolysis of succinylcholine. In case of its deficiency, the effect of succinylcholine that is approximately 5-10 min is prolonged up to few hours. The use of succinylcholine has been declined recently. However, it is still actively used in some special conditions and in developing countries. In this study, incidence of PChE enzyme deficiency around Adiyaman city was investigated and presented with the literature review.