With the rapid development in computer technologies, mathematical programming-based technique to solve scheduling problems is significantly receiving attention from researchers. Although, it is not efficient solution method due to the NP-hard structure of these problems, mathematical programming formulation is the first step to develop an effective heuristic. Numerous comparative studies for variety scheduling problems have appeared over the years. But in our search in literature there is not an entirely review for mathematical formulations of flexible job shop scheduling problems (FJSP). In this paper, four the most widely used formulations of the FJSP are compiled from literature and a time-indexed model for FJSP is proposed. These formulations are evaluated under three categories that are distinguished by the type of binary variable that they rely on for using of sequencing operations on machines. All five formulations compared and results are presented. (C) 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.