A search is presented for particles that decay producing a large jet multiplicity and invisible particles. The event selection applies a veto on the presence of isolated electrons or muons and additional requirements on the number of b-tagged jets and the scalar sum of masses of large-radius jets. Having explored the full ATLAS 2015-2016 dataset of LHC proton-proton collisions at root s = 13 TeV, which corresponds to 36.1 fb(-1) of integrated luminosity, no evidence is found for physics beyond the Standard Model. The results are interpreted in the context of simplified models inspired by R-parity-conserving and R-parity-violating supersymmetry, where gluinos are pair-produced. More generic models within the phenomenological minimal supersymmetric Standard Model are also considered.