The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between apolipoprotein E gene polymorphism and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. The study group consisted of 237 nonalcoholic fatty liver disease patients who were detected by ultrasonography and 201 controls with ultrasonographically normal livers. DNA amplifications were performed by polymerase chain reaction technique and apolipoprotein E genotypes were evaluated after digestion with CfoI restriction enzyme. Serum levels of glucose, lipids, lipoproteins, and apolipoproteins were measured in all subjects. Additionally, viral hepatitis markers, liver enzymes, and body mass index were assessed. Patients were found to have significantly higher triglyceride, glucose, aspartate aminotrasferase, alanine aminotransferase, and gamma-glutamyltransferase levels and lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and apolipoprotein (a) levels than controls (P < 0.05). There were no statistically significant differences in genotypes and allele frequencies between all patients and controls. Comparing nonobese patients with controls, the frequencies of allele epsilon 2 and genotype epsilon 2 epsilon 3 were statistically significantly different in the controls (P = 0.04 and P = 0.01, respectively). In conclusion, occurrence of the epsilon 2 allele and epsilon 2 epsilon 3 genotype may be protective against development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.