Urinary cotinine levels of smokeless tobacco (Maraş powder) users1

Cok İ. , Ozturk R.

Human and Experimental Toxicology, cilt.19, sa.11, ss.650-655, 2000 (SCI Expanded İndekslerine Giren Dergi) identifier identifier identifier

  • Yayın Türü: Makale / Tam Makale
  • Cilt numarası: 19 Konu: 11
  • Basım Tarihi: 2000
  • Doi Numarası: 10.1191/096032700670928812
  • Dergi Adı: Human and Experimental Toxicology
  • Sayfa Sayıları: ss.650-655


Smokeless tobacco is used in various forms in some countries of the world. "Maraş otu" is a kind of smokeless tobacco usage in the Southeastern region of Turkey. The use of smokeless tobacco causes nicotine addiction and dependence. Moreover this type of smokeless tobacco usage is one of the risk factors for oral cancers and genotoxic damages for users. Cotinine is widely used as a biomarker of tobacco consumption and intake of nicotine. Therefore, urine samples were collected from people who are using Maraş powder and smoking cigarettes, and passive smokers, and the levels of cotinine investigated. The purpose of this study is to determine the cotinine levels of Maraş powder users and to compare the results with cigarette smokers and passive smokers. Urinary cotinine levels of subjects were determined by using capillary gas chromatography with FID detection. The mean (±SD) urinary cotinines have been determined as 6467.35±3198 μg/g creatinine for 26 Maraş powder users, 1943.92±1443 μg/g creatinine for 26 cigarette smokers and 198.62±420.82 μg/g creatinine for 26 passive smokers. A significant differences has been found between cotinine levels of Maraş powder users and cigarette smokers, which is three times higher in Maraş powder users (p<0.001). The present study suggests that smokeless tobacco poses a threat to public health and it should not be viewed as a safe alternative to cigarettes.