The aerial parts of Chrysophthalmum montanum (DC.) Boiss. (Asteraceae) is traditionally used for wound healing, as well as for the treatment of common cold, sinusitis, and other inflammatory diseases. The objectives of this study were to identify potential anti-inflammatory effects of the methanol extract, and its different polarity subextracts (n-hexane, chloroform, n-butanol, and remaining aqueous), and guaianolide-type sesquiterpene lactones [6 alpha-acetoxy-4 alpha-hydroxy-1 beta H-guaia-9.11(13)-dien-12.8 alpha-olide (1), 6 alpha-acetoxy-4 alpha-hydroxy -9 beta.10 beta-epoxy- 1 beta H-guaia-11 (13)-en-12 .8 alpha-olide (2), 4 alpha ,6 alpha-dihydroxy -1 beta,5 alpha,7 alpha H-guaia-9(10),11 (13)-dien-12,8 alpha-olide (3), and (4 alpha,5 alpha,8 beta,10 beta)-4,10-dihydroxy-1,11(13)-guaidien-12,8-olide (4)] from the aerial parts of C. montanum. In order to evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity of C. montanum, carrageenan- and PGE(2) induced hind paw edema, and acetic acid-induced increase in capillary permeability mice models were used. The methanol extract, the chloroform subextract, and compounds 3, and 4 were shown to possess anti-inflammatory activity in in vivo models at 100 mg/kg dose. The results provide a biological, and phytochemical basis for the traditional use of C. montanum aerial parts for inflammatory conditions in Turkish folk medicine.