Introduction: The present study seeks to use transcranial Doppler ultrasound to evaluate cerebral blood flow velocities in anterior and posterior circulation arteries, during an attack-free episode in migraine patients, with and without aura, as well as in chronic tension-type headache patients who were not receiving prophylactic medication. Methods: A total of 50 patients (35 female, 15 male) were evaluated during a headache-free episode: 30 migraine patients without aura (mean age: 32 +/- 8 years), 10 migraine patients with aura (mean age: 34 +/- 4 years), and 10 patients with chronic tension-type headache (mean age: 34 +/- 5 years). Results: No significant difference was present between anterior, middle, and posterior cerebral and vertebral arteries' blood flow velocities between migraine patients, with and without aura, or in patients with a tension-type headache, and normal controls (p>0.05). However, a significant increase in basilar artery cerebral blood flow velocities relative to controls was present in patients with a tension-type headache (p>0.001). Conclusion: It is difficult to predict the main reason for the significant increase in basilar artery blood flow velocities in patients with chronic tension-type headache. It may be due to constriction of conductance or the dilatation of the resistance vessels.