Objective: To measure blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) uric acid (UA) levels of neonates with intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH), and to examine whether or not UA can be used to differentiate traumatic tap from IVH. Material and Methods: The control group (n = 19, group I) consisted of neonates presenting with signs requiring analysis of CSF but whose CSF indices proved to be normal. Traumatic taps (n = 15, group II) were mimicked by adding 2 drops of homologous blood to normal CSF samples. The IVH group (n = 21, group III) consisted of neonates who had been diagnosed by cranial ultrasonography or computed tomography scans. Data are presented as median ( range). Results: There was no significant difference between groups with respect to serum UA levels. While no significant difference was observed between CSF UA levels of the control [0.6 (0.1-1.8) mg/dl] and traumatic tap group [0.5 (0.3-1.1) mg/dl], the IVH group [1.6 (0.7-6.9) mg/dl] was found to have significantly higher CSF UA levels than groups I and II. Furthermore, although there were significant correlations between serum and CSF UA levels in the control and traumatic tap groups, no correlation was observed in the IVH group. Conclusion: CSF UA levels are increased in neonates with IVH and they may be used to differentiate a real hemorrhage from a traumatic tap. Copyright (c) 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel.