The aqueous and ethanol extracts of Rosa canina L. (Rosaceae) fruits and the fractions prepared from the latter were investigated for their anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities in several in vivo experimental models. The ethanolic extract was shown to possess significant inhibitory activity against inflammatory models (i.e., carrageenan-induced and PGE(1)-induced hind paw edema models, as well as on acetic acid-induced increase in a capillary permeability model) and on a pain model based on the inhibition of p-benzoquinone-induced writhing in mice. Hexane, chloroform, ethylacetate, n-butanol and the remaining water fractions were obtained through bioassay-guided fractionation. Ethylacetate and n-butanol fractions displayed potent anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities at a dose of 919 mg/kg without inducing acute toxicity. Further attempts to isolate and define the active constituent(s) were inconclusive, possibly due to the synergistic interaction of components in the extract. (c) 2007 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.