In the present study, the concentration levels of heavy metals such as Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cr, and Pb in sediment samples collected from 16 sampling locations in the Middle and Eastern Black Sea regions, Turkey, were measured using energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (EDXRF). Various pollution parameters and methods, such as the enrichment factor (EF), geo-accumulation index (I-geo), contamination factor (CF), pollution load index (PLI), ecological risk index (RI), and geo-spatial distribution patterns, were used to assess the pollution status, ecological risks, and sources of metals in sediment in detail. The mean concentrations of Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cr, and Pb were found to be 565.38, 46,000, 34.38, 104.06, 109.88, 87.31, and 32.31 mg/kg, respectively. Results showed that the mean concentrations of Cu, Zn, and Pb exceeded the crustal shale value, with the exception of Mn, Fe, Ni, and Cr. According to the calculated pollution parameters, although minimal or moderate pollution was detected in the area investigated, it was determined that there was a very low ecological risk. Multivariate statistical analysis results showed that Cu, Zn, and Pb levels in the investigated region were slightly influenced by anthropogenic inputs such as mining and agricultural practices. In addition, the geo-spatial distributions of Cu, Zn, Fe, and Pb were found to be higher in this region due to the mining activities carried out in the Eastern Black Sea region.