The coaggregation abilities of probiotic strains might enable it to form a barrier that prevents colonization by pathogenic bacteria. In the present study, the characterization of the coaggregation ability of 19 vaginal lactobacilli was studied. Coaggregation ability of all lactobacilli with Escherichia coli ATCC 11229 was positive. Only the highest coaggregation percentage of Lactobacillus acidophilus S1 was obtained with E. coli ATCC 11229 under both aerobic (71%) and anaerobic conditions (62%). The coaggregation abilities of strains occurred higher at acidic pH than at basic pH values. Moreover, the coaggregation abilities of tested strains against E. coli decreased after heat treatment (70 or 85 degrees C). Also, the relationship between hydrophobicity and coaggregation of strains was found to be significant. The effect of sonication, some enzymes (lipase and pepsin) and sodium periodate on coaggregation ability of L. acidophilus S1, which is one of the highest potentials on coaggregation ability, was investigated. Sodium periodate did not have a significant effect on coaggregation ability of L. acidophilus S1. The sonicated cell showed lower coaggregation than the control, the supernatant fluid of this sonicated cells showed similar coaggregation ability to the control. Coaggregation abilities of bacteriotherapeutic lactobacilli with pathogenic bacteria can be used for preliminary screening in order to identify potentially probiotic bacteria suitable for human use against urogenital tract infections.