Eucalyptus species has been used for treating several diseases such as sinusitis, bronchitis, toothache, kidney disorders and rheumatism in worldwide traditional medicine. In Turkey, E. globulus leaves are used to treat wounds. The purpose of this study was to evaluate, for the first time, the chemical composition of the essential oil from the fruits of E. globulus and its wound healing activity. Since wound repair is related to inflammatory associated conditions, the supposed anti-inflammatory activity of the oil was investigated. Essential oil from E. globulus, isolated by hydrodistillation, was analyzed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry. Linear incision and circular excision wound models on rats were used for the wound healing activity of the oil, and acetic acid induced increases in capillary permeability model in mice was used for the anti-inflammatory activity. Analysis of the essential oil showed that the main components were eucalyptol, alpha-phellandrene, beta-phellandrene, cymene, 4-terpineol, alpha-pinene, alpha-thujone, alpha-terpinene and gamma-terpinene. The essential oil comprises 53.67 % eucalyptol. It exhibited significant wound healing activity in the models studied, and the oil revealed a significant inhibitory effect on inflammation. These findings add significant information to the wound healing and anti-inflammatory activities of E. globulus, therefore justifying and supporting the use of this plant in traditional folk medicine.