A polyphasic study was undertaken to establish the taxonomic status of an Actinomadura strain isolated from the margin of a saline, alkaline lake in Central Anatolia, Turkey. Strain D310AT(T) was shown to have chemotaxonomic, cultural and morphological properties consistent with its classification in the genus Actinomadura such as hooked or irregular spiral spore chains, meso-diaminopimelic acid as the major cell wall diaminopimelic acid, and diphosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylinositol as major polar lipids. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain D310AT(T) is closely, albeit loosely, associated with Actinomadura darangshiensis DLS-70(T) with 97.2% sequence similarity, but was readily separated from the latter using diverse phenotypic properties. Consequently, the isolate is considered to represent a new species of Actinomadura for which the name Actinomadura alkaliterrae sp. nov. is proposed, with the type strain D310AT(T) (=DSM 101185(T) = KCTC 39657(T)).