Leptin produces effects in central nervous system and peripheral tissues via its specific receptors. Leptin also stimulates nitric oxide release in a concentration-dependent manner. In this study, our aim was to test the hypothesis that whether leptin has a modulatory role on endothelium or smooth muscle function in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Wistar-Albino rats were divided into four groups: 1 - Control, 2 - Diabetic, 3 - Control + leptin and 4 - Diabetic + leptin. Experimental diabetes was produced by intraperitoneal injection of a single dose of STZ (55 mg/kg). Diabetes was determined by increased fasting blood glucose level on the 7th day of the experiment. Leptin (0.1 mg/kg/day) was administered intraperitoneally for 5 days. At the end of the 5th day, thoracic aortas were isolated and phenylephrine (Phe)-induced contractions and acetylcholine (ACh)-induced relaxations of each group were estimated. In diabetic rats, Phe-induced contractility was increased (p < 0.05). Leptin pre-treatment increased the Phe-induced contractility significantly in aortic rings obtained from diabetic rats (p < 0.05). In normal rats, leptin administration produced only a slight and non-significant increase in Phe-induced contractions. Although the relaxant responses were decreased in diabetic rats, leptin administration enhanced the ACh-induced relaxation in both normal and diabetic animals significantly. As a conclusion; chronic leptin pre-treatment caused a significant increase both in Phe-induced contractions and ACh-induced Endothelial-Derived Relaxing Factor (EDRF)/Nitric oxide-mediated relaxations in the aortic rings isolated from streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. This peptide hormone caused a significant increase in the relaxations obtained by ACh while not inducing a significant alteration in the contractile effect of Phe in control rats.