Treatment of patients with solitary kidney having complex stones is one of the most challenging problem in urology. We present our experience with percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) in treating 16 patients with staghorn stones in a solitary kidney to determine long-term renal functional results. We retrospectively reviewed the records of 16 patients with complex caliceal or staghorn stones in a solitary kidney treated with PCNL. Demographic data, number and location of accesses, hemoglobin values, stone analyses, and complications were studied. Serum creatinine, glomerular filtration rate (GFR), systolic and diastolic blood pressure, new onset hypertension, and kidney morphology were determined preoperatively and postoperatively at 1 month and 1 year. Male to female ratio was 14:2 and mean age was 49.6 years (range 31-55). Of these, 10 (62.5%) patients required a single tract, while 6 (37.5%) required multiple tracts. The calculi were extracted or fragmented successfully in 13 (81.3%) patients and complete stone clearance was achieved after the first stage. In two patients with residual calculi, a double-J catheter was inserted and extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (SWL) was performed. There were no significant intraoperative problems except in one patient, who had bleeding from an infundibular tear attributable to torquing. During the 1-year study period, none of the patients progressed to end-stage renal disease requiring dialysis. We demonstrated a significant improvement in creatinine and GFR levels from preoperatively to 1-year follow-up. The number of patients with hypertension before PCNL was 5 and by the end of follow-up there was no new onset hypertension. The demonstrated effectiveness, small number of complications at short-term, not any poorly effect on renal function and blood pressure at the long-term follow-up confirm that PCNL is not only effective but is also safe in the solitary kidney with staghorn calculi.