Copyright: © 2022 The Author(s).Background: Increased oxidants and proinflammatory cytokines play a role in the pathogenesis of ovarian ischemia-reperfusion (OIR) injury and related infertility. Carvacrol has antioxidant, antibacterial and anti-inflammatory properties. Methods: Protective effect of carvacrol against ischemia-reperfusion (IR)-related ovarian damage and infertility was investigated. IR process were applied to the ovaries of rats, which were divided into the following groups (n = 12): OIR, IR +50 mg/kg carvacrol (IRC-50), IR +100 mg/kg carvacrol (IRC-100) and sham group (SG). After the reperfusion process, six rats from each group were killed and the removed ovaries were examined biochemically and histopathologically. The remaining animals were kept two months with mature male rats to reproduce. Results: At a dose of 50 mg/kg, carvacrol suppressed the oxidant parameter increase and antioxidant decrease caused by IR in ovarian tissue. At a dose of 100 mg/kg, carvacrol antagonized both oxidant and proinflammatory cytokine increase and antioxidant decrease. Histopathologically, severe degeneration of follicles in the ovaries of the OIR group, necrotic cell accumulations, hemorrhage in the corpus luteum, edema in the interstitial tissue, polymorphous nuclear leukocyte (PNL) infiltration, and congestion and dilation of blood vessels were detected. Inflammatory symptoms such as edema in the ovarian tissue, congested dilated blood vessels and PNL infiltration were observed at a dose of 50 mg/kg of carvacrol, but these histopathological findings were not observed at a dose of 100 mg/kg. Conclusion: A dose of 100 mg/kg carvacrol, which eliminated inflammatory damage, significantly prevented the development of IR-induced infertility. Carvacrol may be beneficial in the treatment of IR-related ovarian damage and infertility.