We have investigated anticholinesterase potential of the methanol extracts from the leaf, wood, flower, twig, and stem bark of the female and male individuals and rhizodermis and fruit from the female tree of Maclura pomifera (Rafin.) Schneider (Moraceae) along with its major isoflavonoids; osajin and pomiferin as well as their semi-synthetic derivatives; iso-osajin and iso-pomiferin. Anticholinesterase activity was determined by Ellman method using ELISA microplate reader. Osajin and pomiferin had a noticeable inhibition of AChE with IC50 values of 2.239 and 0.096 mM, respectively, while their iso-derivatives were found to display less inhibition towards AChE. The extracts and compounds did not inhibit BChE. The extracts were analyzed for osajin and pomiferin contents by LC-DAD-MS and only the fruits and female flowers contained osajin (fruit: 8.87%, female flowers: 0.19%, w/w) and pomiferin (fruit: 13.6%, female flowers: 0.36%, w/w). © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.