Indoleamine 2,3-Dioxygenase Activity-Induced Acceleration of Tumor Growth, and Protein Kinases-Related Novel Therapeutics Regimens


PROTEIN KINASE-MEDIATED DECISIONS BETWEEN LIFE AND DEATH, vol.1275, pp.339-356, 2021 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier


Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) is over-expressed in response to interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma). IDO-mediated degradation of tryptophan (Trp) along the kynurenine (Kyn) pathway by immune cells is associated with the anti- microbial, and anti-tumor defense mechanisms. In contrast, IDO is constitutively expressed by various tumors and creates an immunosuppressive microenvironment around the tumor tissue both by depletion of the essential amino acid Trp and by formation of Kyn, which is immunosuppressive metabolite of Trp. IDO may activate its own expression in human cancer cells via an autocrine aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)- interleukin 6 (IL-6)-signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) signaling loop. Although IDO is not a unique marker, in many clinical trials serum IDO activity is suggested to be an important parameter in the pathogenesis of cancer development and growth. Measuring IDO activity in serum seems to be an indicator of cancer growth rate, however, it is controversial whether this approach can be used as a reliable guide in cancer patients treated with IDO inhibitors. Thus, IDO immunostaining is strongly recommended for the identification of higher IDO producing tumors, and IDO inhibitors should be included in post-operative complementary therapy in IDO positive cancer cases only. Novel therapies that target the IDO pathway cover checkpoint protein kinases related combination regimens. Currently, multimodal therapies combining IDO inhibitors and checkpoint kinase blockers in addition to T regulatory (Treg) cell-modifying treatments seem promising.