Metabolic syndrome (MS) is the term that encompasses metabolic risk factors that may lead to atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. This study was undertaken to investigate the prevalence of MS in patients with ischemic cerebrovascular disease (CVD), according to National Cholesterol Education Program/Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP III) criteria. A total of 40 patients who were referred to the emergency department and given a diagnosis of CVD were included in this study. Detailed medical histories, physical examination findings, heights, weights, and waist circumferences of patients were recorded. Fasting blood glucose levels and lipid profiles of patients were evaluated. Those with hypertension, diabetes, or hyperlipidemia were regarded as meeting at least 1 of the ATP III criteria. Study results were compared, especially between females and males. In all, 55% of patients were female, and 70% were older than 65 y. Blood pressure over 130/85 mm Hg was assessed in 60% of patients. Among female patients, 81.8% had a waist circumference greater than 88 cm; 50% of male patients had a waist circumference over 102 cm. A fasting blood glucose level above 110 mg/dL was identified in 57.5% of patients. Serum triglyceride levels in 30% of patients were above 150 mg/dL. It was noted that 33.3% of male patients had a high-density lipoprotein (HDL) level below 40 mg/dL, and in 68.2% of female patients, an HDL level below 50 mg/dL was recorded. According to these findings, 14 of 22 female patients (64%) and 13 of 18 male patients (72%) were identified as having MS. High rates of stroke associated with MS reveal the importance of forthcoming preventive approaches. ©2006 Health Communications Inc.