Local bone marrow (BM) renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is an autocrine-paracrine system affecting normal and neoplastic hematopoiesis. Angiotensin II type 1a (AT1a) receptors are present on the CD34(+) hematopoetic stem cells (HSC). Angiotensin II stimulates the proliferation and differentiation of the HSC populations through the activation of AT1 receptors on HSC. Umbilical cord blood (UCB) is a rich source of HSC. The existence of a complete local UCB RAS has not been previously investigated. In this study, local synthesis of the major RAS components, namely, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), renin, and angiotensinogen, was identified by demonstrating their corresponding mRNAs using quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in human UCB. Local RAS could regulate cellular growth in a variety of tissues including the BM. Major RAS peptides can exert significant effects on primitive pluripotential HSC populations. Further studies should focus on the interactions between possible autocrine, paracrine, endocrine, and intracrine actions of the local UCB RAS and growth, engraftment, differentiation, and plasticity functions of HSC of UCB origin.