The purpose of this study is to investigate and relate the geotechnical parameters with the mineralogical properties of the Miocene and Plio-Quaternary (Pliocene to Quaternary) lacustrine and fluvial sediments, particularly clayey soils in the Orta County, cankiri. The study area is located about 110 km northeast of Ankara which is the capital city of the Republic of Turkey and Orta is a small county of cankiri. The study area is a structural depression in the northern part of the Orta plain which is filled by fault-controlled continental sedimentation. In order to correlate the geotechnical and mineralogical characteristics and to establish a relation between these properties, comprehensive geotechnical laboratory studies have been performed. For correlation purposes, disturbed and undisturbed soil samples were collected from twenty-two locations of the study area. On these samples, mineralogical (i.e., methylene blue absorption, specific surface area determination, X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM-EDAX)) analysis and geotechnical (i.e., sieve analysis, hydrometer, Atterberg (consistency) limits, oedometer and swelling) tests were implemented. By the aid of the statistical analysis, cross-correlation of the soil properties was established by the regression analyses performed. In particular, the plasticity index was correlated with cation exchange capacity, specific surface area, clay content, percent of fines, smectite and smectite/kaolinite ratio (SKR). There was a direct relationship between PI and smectite percentage as well as between PI and SKR. Additionally, the liquid limit was correlated with the clay content and the effect of the specific surface area on the swelling characteristics was studied. The effects of the mineralogical properties of the Orta clays together with the geological history on geotechnical parameters were investigated by considering the relationships mentioned. The results of the study revealed that the mineralogical characteristics had a significant effect on the geotechnical behavior of clayey soils of the Orta County which was demonstrated by regression analyses. Finally it was identified that the geotechnical properties of clayey soils can be approximated and more reliably determined if the mineralogical character and composition of clay is accurately investigated and well developed.