Allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) is known as an efficient antibacterial agent but it has a very high volatility. Herein, AITC and AITC/beta-cyclodextrin (CD)-inclusion complex (IC) incorporated in polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) nanofibers were produced via electrospinning. SEM images elucidated that incorporation of AITC and AITC/beta-CD-IC into polymer matrix did not affect the bead-free fiber morphology of PVA nanofibers. H-1-NMR and headspace GC-MS analyses revealed that very low amount of AITC was remained in PVA/AITC-NF because of the rapid evaporation of AITC during the electrospinning process. Nevertheless, much higher amount of AITC was preserved in the PVA/AITC/beta-CD-IC-NF due to the CD inclusion complexation. The sustained release of AITC from nanofibers was evaluated at 30 degrees C, 50 degrees C and 75 degrees C via headspace GC MS. When compared to PVA/AITC-NF, PVA/AITC/beta-CD-IC-NF has shown higher antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus due to the presence of higher amount of AITC in this sample which was preserved by CD-IC. 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.