Biomarkers are key molecular or cellular events that give an indication whether there is a threat for disease, whether a disease already exists, or how such disease may develop in an individual case. The discovery of polymorphisms in genes that function in the metabolism of chemicals and in DNA repair has demonstrated the importance of understanding the phenomenon of genetic susceptibility in a population. Polymorphisms in DNA repair genes as an important component of the individual susceptibility to the development of cancer and various hereditary diseases have been commonly studied, since these genes have critical roles in maintaining genome integrity. Furthermore, the evaluation of cancer risk depends on the level of exposure to carcinogenic factors as well as on the genetic codes of the individual. This approach is supported by studies that present positive association between these polymorphic genes and cancers. Although 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase 1 (OGG1) is one of the promising biomarker candidates of cancer susceptibility, there are also some controversial results. Epidemiological studies show that the OGG1 might be a biomarker of susceptibility for various cancers; however, the small sample size and difference in the eligibility criteria for inclusion of subjects and sources might limit the studies to demonstrate the association between the OGG1 Ser326Cys polymorphism and the risk of cancer. Thus, meta-analyses may provide more valuable and reliable data to demonstrate the potential of OGG1 Ser326Cys DNA repair enzyme polymorphisms that could be the biomarkers of susceptibility of cancer. Our aim in this review is to compile published studies, including some controversial results on the association between the OGG1 Ser326Cys polymorphism and the risk of cancer.