MICROSCOPY RESEARCH AND TECHNIQUE, vol.78, no.3, pp.230-239, 2015 (SCI-Expanded)
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of different irrigation activation techniques on smear layer removal. About 80 single-rooted human maxillary central teeth were decoronated to a standardized length.The samples were prepared by using ProTaper system to size F4 and divided into eight equal groups (n=10) according to the final irrigation activation technique; distilled water was used as an irrigant in Group 1. The other groups were treated with 2.5% NaOCl and 17% EDTA, respectively. Conventional syringe irrigation (CSI) was used in Group 2. Irrigation solutions were activated using passive ultrasonic irrigation (PUI, Group 3), EndoVac apical negative pressure (ANP, Group 4), diode laser (Group 5), Nd:YAG laser (Group 6), Er:YAG laser (Group 7), and Er:YAG laser using with photon-induced photoacoustic streaming (PIPS, Group 8). Teeth were split longitudinally and subjected to scanning electron microscope (SEM). PIPS showed the best removal of smear layer when compared with PUI, ANP, Nd:YAG, and Er:YAG, but the difference was not statistically significant (P>0.05). Smear layer scores obtained with PIPS technique were statistically significant different from those of obtained with control, CSI and diode laser groups (P<0.05). All experimental irrigation techniques except ANP and diode laser removed smear layer more effectively at the coronal and middle levels compared to the apical level (P<0.05). Irrigation activated/delivered techniques except diode laser have a positive effect on removing of smear layer. Microsc. Res. Tech. 78:230-239, 2015. (c) 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.