Does 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) induce genotoxic effects in tissue cultured Allium roots?


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Ozkul M., ÖZEL Ç. A. , YÜZBAŞIOĞLU D. , ÜNAL F.

CYTOTECHNOLOGY, vol.68, no.6, pp.2395-2405, 2016 (Journal Indexed in SCI) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 68 Issue: 6
  • Publication Date: 2016
  • Doi Number: 10.1007/s10616-016-9956-3
  • Title of Journal : CYTOTECHNOLOGY
  • Page Numbers: pp.2395-2405
  • Keywords: Allium cepa, Comet test, Cytogenetic damages, In vitro, Tissue culture, CHROMOSOMAL-ABERRATIONS, COMET ASSAY, DNA-CONTENT, TOXICITY, CELLS, MICRONUCLEI, EXPOSURE, MERISTEM, GROWTH, PLANTS

Abstract

2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) is a synthetic plant growth regulator that is highly toxic to most broad leaved plants and relatively nontoxic to monocotyledonous plants; is frequently used as weed killer. The study aimed to investigate cytogenetic effects of different concentrations of 2,4-D (0.67, 1.34, 2.01, 2.68, 3.35 and 4.02 mg/L) on Allium cepa bulblets' root tips treated for 24 and 48 h. The results showed six types of structural aberrations: C-mitosis, stickiness, laggards, bridges, fragments and multipolarity that varied numerically compared to control. It significantly affected mitotic index (MI) at 24 and 48 h treatment. In the Allium test, MI increased significantly at three lower concentrations (0.67, 1.34, 2.01 mg/L) after treatment with 2,4-D for 24 h and decreased significantly at higher concentration. Whereas, 2,4-D treatment for 48 h increased MI at all concentrations with significantly decreased MI at the highest concentration. The experiment was extended using comet test that did not reveal significant difference among treatments except for application of 4.02 mg/L 2,4-D for 48 h; where cell damages were verified by comet test. Rest of the concentrations for any duration of time were not damaging and toxic to cells. The results showed, visible mitodepressive action of 4.02 mg/L 2,4-D when treated for 48 h that had tendency to become toxic if the roots had been in touch with 2,4-D for a longer time.