Purpose Third molars (M3s) are the most common congenitally missing teeth. The aim of this study was to compare the frequency of M3 agenesis in two different age groups. Methods This study examined the panoramic radiographic images of 1036 patients. Two groups, each consisting of 518 patients, were arranged based on age ranges. The patients aged 12 to 19 years were in the first group and those 20 years and older were in the second group. The frequency of M3 agenesis was examined in both age groups. The distribution of M3 agenesis by sex and jaw was also recorded, along with the number of M3s affected by agenesis. Chi-square tests were used to examine the relationships between categorical variables. Results M3 agenesis was observed in 29.3% and 20.5% in the first and second groups, respectively; the difference was statistically significant (P < .01). It was more common in female (27.3%) than in male patients (21.4%), and in the maxilla (11.2%) than in the mandible (5.8%), and the differences were statistically significant (P < .05). It was mostly observed forthemaxilla right M3 (18) (30.9%) and in the single quadrant of the jaws (9.7%). Conclusions The frequency of M3 agenesis was more common in patients aged 12 to 19 years than in those aged 20 years and older. Additionally, M3 agenesis was more common in females and in the maxilla.