Artemisia annua L. is an aromatic-antibacterial herb that destroys malarial parasites, lowers fevers and checks bleeding, and of which the secondary compound of interest is artemisinin. The objective of the present study was to determine yield, yield components and artemisinin content of A. annua L. grown under four nitrogen applications (0, 40, 80 and 120 kg ha-1) in the Çukurova region of Turkey in 2004 and 2005. Field trials were conducted at Çukurova University, Agricultural Faculty Field Crops Department. In the study, plant height, number of branches, fresh herbage yield, dry herbage yield, fresh leaf yield, dry leaf yield, essential oil content and artemisinin content (by high performance liquid chromatography, HPLC) were examined. By analysis of variance, nitrogen doses had no any statistical effect on the traits investigated except for artemisinin content. Artemisinin content of the dried leaves were significantly affected by nitrogen applications, which varied from 6.32 to 27.50 mg 100 g-1. Contents were from 120 and 80 kg ha-1 nitrogen for the years of 2004 and 2005, respectively. © 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.